Mandarin Supplier in Iran
Export of tangerines
According to FAO statistics in 2012, 131 million tons of citrus fruits were produced in the world from 8.8 million hectares of orchards with an average yield of 14,943 kg/hectare. Among citrus fruits, oranges and tangerines account for 73% of world production. Surin Export is Fruit Export company in Iran.
Per capita consumption of oranges and tangerines in the world is 12 kg. China accounts for 24% of the world’s citrus production and 5.27% of the cultivated area. The highest production efficiency of this product with the amount of 34118 kg per hectare belongs to Turkey and the lowest one with the amount of 4875 kg per hectare belongs to Nigeria. The average waste in the production process (harvest and post-harvest stage) is 8%.
Citrus trade in the world is about 7.31 million tons. In general, about 70% of the volume and value of citrus imports and exports in the world is dedicated to oranges and tangerines. The countries of Russia, Germany, France, the Netherlands, England and Saudi Arabia, respectively, are the main importers of oranges and tangerines in the world, and the countries of Spain, South Africa, Egypt, Turkey, America, China, Morocco and Greece, respectively, are the main exporters of oranges and tangerines. Iranian Apple, Oranges, Tangerines, Iranian Kiwi , Dates Etc are the Best in the world.
The origin of citrus is known for its history full of controversy and interesting legends. Some researchers believe that citrus fruits are native to the subtropical and tropical regions of Asia and their origin is in certain parts of Southeast Asia, including China, India, and the Mali archipelago. According to old manuscripts found among ancient Chinese documents.
The first texts that mention citrus are related to the Ta Yu era around 2200 years ago, that is, when citrus fruits, especially tangerines and POMELO or Chinese grapefruit, were very valuable and were used only in the imperial court.
It is known that lemons originated in India and oranges and tangerines are native to China. Some species of citrus fruits were transferred to the western regions of Asia such as Oman, Iran and Palestine before Christ. It is reported that Alexander the Great saw a type of citrus fruit called Citrus medica in Iran in 330 BC.
Classification of commercialized mandarin cultivars and its cultivation centers in Iran
Anshu mandarin, Jaffa mandarin (clementine), Northern local mandarin, Page mandarin, Tanjila mandarin, Younesi
Kino Mandarin, Port Mandarin (Black), Clementine Mandarin, Cara-Minola and Orlando Tanjelo
Satsuma tangerine (Unshi Unshi)
This tangerine is one of the most famous early tangerines in the world, which arrived in the north of Iran in 1309. It was not much noticed until 1342 when a very severe frost occurred in the citrus fruits of northern Iran. With the occurrence of the mentioned cold and the selection of cold-resistant cultivars, Anshu tangerine with a temperature tolerance of -9 degrees Celsius was introduced as the most cold-resistant citrus cultivar in the north of Iran.
This species is called Satsuma tangerine in European and American countries. It is native to Japan and entered Iran through Turkey. This species constitutes 80% of the total citrus cultivation in Japan. This tangerine is very tasty and fragrant and without seeds, it has a thin orange skin and it is easily separated from the flesh. If it is too much, it creates an empty space between the flesh and the skin and reduces its storage properties.
In Iran, it can be grown only in the cities along the Caspian Sea. The ripening time of that in northern Iran is from October 15 to November 15. The best place to plant this type is east of Mazandaran. Its trees grow wide and take the shape of an umbrella. The trees are very productive and have no blades, and the fruit has a smooth and thin skin, juicy, relatively large, chamfered with an elongated tail.
Its fruit size is average compared to Anshu, and unlike the Anshu tangerine, it has seeds, which is one of the disadvantages of this type. But in recent years, strains with fewer seeds have also been grown in Spain, including Cado Kes and Cohuna. This tangerine is compatible with the northern region of Iran and can also be grown in some southern parts of the country such as Delfard, Jiroft and its cool slopes.
Clementine tangerine is also called Jaffa in Iran. It is a relatively cold-resistant species that requires light soils. In heavy soils, its fruit is small and the skin is thick, and it needs irrigation especially in the east of Mazandaran. Its fruit ripening period is after Page and Anshu tangerines.
Clementine trees have fruits of different sizes (average diameter about 5 cm) and variable shapes (slightly flat to spherical or elongated and sometimes pyramidal). The thickness of the skin is medium, relatively hard and attached to the meat, but it can be easily separated and it will not become puffy even after ripening. Its flesh is dark orange, crispy, juicy, sweet and aromatic. This is considered premature. Clementine trees have a high-quality product in addition to compactness of the crown and shortness.
Puncan is one of the famous varieties of tangerines with seeds and its origin is India. Its seed was brought to Iran for the first time in 1347 from the state of Florida by Mr. Yunus Ebrahimi, a citrus researcher, and after research work, it was introduced as a suitable species by him. For this reason, it is known as Yunsi.
The trees of this variety are strong and climbing. There is a risk of branches breaking due to wind and heavy snow. The fruits are produced at the end of the branches and it is one of the types of fleshy tangerines with seeds and early ripening. Its fruit is bigger than other tangerine cultivars and its marketability is very good.
In terms of ripening time, they are among the group of early tangerine cultivars (after ancho and clementine tangerines). The shape of the fruit is rounded, with a small navel, thick and smooth skin. It is orange and has a relatively pleasant and aromatic taste. This species is less resistant to cold than most tangerines.
Its fruit is wide and round, orange-red in color, well-shaped, with large and crispy wings. Its skin is thick but smooth compared to Enshu, and contains a large number of seeds. The only drawback is the explosion, which the investigations show is related to the lack of water in the summer and rare elements. If this problem is solved, it is one of the good and high-yielding species in the north of Iran.
It is an early-ripening, market-friendly and high-yielding species, but in terms of storage and sensitivity, the branches are relatively weak to cold. This species is obtained by crossing Clementine tangerine with Miniolatangelo. The size of the fruit is medium and has a chamfered to semi-spherical shape. There are about 10 lobes in each fruit. The flesh of the fruit is dark red in color, crispy texture, juicy and very aromatic and sweet. Usually, it is not easy to separate the skin from the flesh of the fruit.
Kinnow mandarius tangerine
It is known as Pakistani tangerine, which has been imported in large quantities for years. It is juicy, sweet, fleshy and has a thin skin, it has a red-orange color and the number of seeds is high. It is a combination of King and Willow-leaf tangerines, and after the local tangerine, it is the second type of tangerine in the central strip region. This tangerine is one of the good varieties of Pakistan and its trees are climbing, smooth and full of fruits. The size of the fruit is medium, slightly chamfered, the tip and base of the fruit are wide and slightly indented. The skin is more sticky to the flesh than tangerines. The skin is rough, leathery, very smooth and shiny, sometimes there are very fine indented points in yellow-orange color on the skin of the ripe fruit. The flesh is bright yellow-orange, juicy, firm, with excellent aroma.
It is a combination of Duncan grapefruit with Dansi tangerine, which was imported to Iran in 1344-1343. Its tree is umbrella and high-yielding with spoon leaves, and for more production, it is better to plant it with the local Vedansi tangerine at a ratio of 10:1. It is round in shape but somewhat flat, medium-ripe, juicy and somewhat aromatic, fleshy and has a large number of seeds and is resistant to heat. It is planted in the central region of Iran. They are large to medium in size and round in shape. They have dark orange skin. Orlando tangerine ripening time is from late December to late January.
It was obtained from the crossbreeding of its parents (Orlando Tangelo), but its shape is more elongated than Orlando and full of crops. It has a nice color and the number of seeds is less compared to its parents. It entered Iran in 1344 and is one of the mandarin varieties in the south of the country.
It is one of the most abundant and popular types of tangelo. The size of the fruit is large and their skin is smooth and orange-red, they are slightly elongated and have some seeds, and they have a button-like part at the end of the stem. The ripening time of Minola is from the end of December to the end of January. It is one of the famous cultivars in the south of Iran (Minola tangerine is very similar to Tangelo, and therefore it is difficult to identify these two products, and in pricing, they are labeled as Tangelo or different types).
The amount of tangerine production (tons) in 2014
The highest amount of tangerine harvest in the first months of autumn is related to Anshu tangerine and in winter it is related to Kino tangerine, Siahou (Bandari) and Clementine.